Một số phương pháp nâng cao khả năng tư duy sáng tạo
02/08/2008 Để lại bình luận
Xin giới thiệu với các bạn bài viết giới thiệu một số phương pháp xây dựng chiến lược nâng cao khả năng tư duy sáng tạo. Bài viết được giới thiệu bằng nguyên bản Tiếng Anh. Đây là bài viết rất hữu ích. Trong thời gian tới , khi đã rảnh rỗi hơn, tôi sẽ cố gắng dịch toàn bộ bài viết này sang tiếng Việt để giúp các bạn tiện theo dõi.
Creative Thinking Strategies
I believe that every creative act is an application of problem solving. That doesn’t mean that it can’t be fun as well; it can and should be enjoyable. Here are some of the best creative thinking strategies:
Wallis’ four stage sequence
Wallis formulated his theory way back in 1913. It may be old, but it’s still one of the best there is.
1. Preparation: the research phase during which information is gathered on the subject; the hard grind part of the process, requiring one to become very knowledgeable about the area of concern.
2. Incubation: the period following the grueling process of preparation in which one engages in other activities, not consciously working on the problem, but permitting consideration of the problem in the subconscious mind (often overlooked, but essential in the formation of many creative ideas).
3. Illumination (sometimes called the “aha’.” or “Eureka!”): that moment when a possible viable solution to the problem occurs to one.
4. Verification: the testing of the solution; involves the organization of data and conducting of experiments.
Creative Problem Solving (CPS)
This is a five-step process.
Each Step has two phases.
1. Divergent thinking processes (curiosity, inventiveness, activity)
2. Convergent thinking processes (knowledge, decision, valuation)
“If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite.
Koberg and Bagnall’s Design Process
This process expands on the CPS model by adding a visual orientation. Some methods of visually considering the stages include:
– Circular: One step leads to the next and then returns to the beginning if necessary.
– Feedback: Reconsideration of previous stages occurs
– Branching: The order of the stages may be revised ac being considered.
Synectics (developed by W.J.J. Gordon)
The Synectics theory is built on the premise that success in problem solving is increased by using non-rational thought to lead to rational solutions. The process, therefore, involves making the strange familiar and the familiar strange. Synectics relies heavily on analogical and metaphorical thinking.
There are nine phases.
1. Problem as given
2. Analysis (making the strange familiar)
3. Problem as understood
4. Operational mechanisms (analogies, metaphors developed)
5. Making the familiar strange
6. Psychological states (involvement, detachment, deferment, speculation, commonplaceness)
7. States integrated with problem
9. Solution or research target
“If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.”
Morphological Approach (originated by Fritz Zwicky)
This approach involves making forced connections by the combination of items on different attribute lists. All possible connections are placed in a multidimensional matrix called a morphological box.
There are five steps.
I. A concisely formulated problem
2. Localization and analysis of all possible important parameters of the problem
3. Construction of the morphological box
4. Scrutinization and evaluation of all possible combinations
5. Practical application of the most suitable solutions
This is the use of simple questions to trigger creative thinktn2 and offer alternative solutions. In this strategy, one begins with an already existing object or idea, and searches for ways it can be altered to provide possible solutions to a problem. Some of the transformational of manipulative verbs that can be used to activate ‘creative thinking are: transform, translate, transmute, transpose, magnify, mini minify, multiply, divide, concretize, abstract, distort, disguise, animate, fragment, dissect, rearrange, adapt, modify, combine, unify, integrate, manipulate, restate, repeat, reverse, substitute, and eliminate.
“All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better.”
–Ralph Waldo Emerson
This strategy involves a seven-step model.
1. Defining the problem
2. Establishing a conflict or situation
3. Casting characters
4. Warming up actors and observers
5. Acting out the solution
6. Cutting the action
7. Evaluating situations
Brainstorming (developed by Osborn)
Brainstorming is a technique for finding alternatives, which can be used at all stages in the creative problem solving process. As it is entirely a divergent thinking strategy, convergent thinking must be provided at later point within each stage.
There are four rules of brainstorming.
– All criticism is forbidden to allow for free exploration of any and all ideas.
– “Freewheeling” is encouraged with zany ideas welcomed, as it is easier to later refine ideas than to make them more unique.
– Quantity of ideas is sought, as the more ideas are expounded, the better the likelihood becomes that useful ideas will be generated.
– Combining, improving on, and expanding on previous ideas is encouraged to allow for the best possibilities.
“But what we think is less than what we know; what we know is less than what we love; what we love is so much less than what there is. And to that precise extent we are so much less than what we are.”
This process involves listing ways of achieving a goal opposite of the one actually desired. What is most interesting about this process is that the ideas proposed using this technique are very often the ones currently in practice.
There are many other creative thinking strategies. The ones I summarized here are my favorites, the ones I use most often when teaching, writing, painting, singing, acting, or just living my daily life. But perhaps some others would be more useful to you. Here is a quick list of some other well-know strategies.
– Basic questions
– Speculating/”what if’ questions
– Attribute listing
– Attribute analogy chains
– Guided and unguided imaging
– Visual connections
– Free writing
– Synaesthesia Checklists
– Idea files
– Spectrum policy
– Force fit